Departamental II – DII. 209
Area of Biodiversity and Conservation
Rey Juan Carlos University
c/ Tulipán, s/n.
E-28933 Móstoles (Madrid)

Phone: +34 91 488 7070
Fax:      +34 91 664 7490
E-mail: adrian.escudero at

Current position

Full professor

Research interests

Conservation biology of Mediterraean plants.
Population biology: seedling dynamics, reproductive biology, spatial structure of genetic diversity, plant-animal interactions (pollination, dispersal, herbivory).
Ecology of regeneration in extreme environments: gypsum soils and high mountains.
Community ecology: patch dynamics, successional mechanisms.


Arenas, J. M.; Escudero, A.; Mola, I.; Casado, M. A. (In press). Roadsides: an opportunity for biodiversity conservation. Applied Vegetation Science.

Escribano, A.; Ventre-Lespiaucq, A. B.; Granado, C.; Rubio de Casas, R.; Delgado, J. A.; Escudero, A. (In press). Intraindividual variation in light-related functional traits: magnitude and structure of leaf trait variability across global scales in Olea europaea trees. Trees.

Arenas, J. M.; Escudero, A.; Mola, I.; Casado, M. A.(2017). The influence of site factors and proximity of adjacent vegetation on tree regeneration into roadslopes. Ecological Engineering 101: 120-129.

Chacón-Labella, J.; de la Cruz, M.; Escudero, A. (2017). Evidences for a stochastic geometry of biodiversity: the effects species abundances, richness and intraspecific clustering. Journal of Ecology 105: 382-390.

De la Cruz, M.; Quintana-Ascencio, P. F.; Cayuela, L.; Espinosa, C. I.; Escudero, A. (2017). Comment on “The extent of forest in dryland biomes”. Science 358: eaao0369.

Escribano-Rocafort, A. G.; Ventre-Lespiaucq, A. B.; Granado-Yela, C.; Delgado, J. A.; Rubio de Casas, R.; Escudero, A.; Balaguer, L. (2017). Variance of light-related leaf traits across spatial and temporal scales in the Mediterranean evergreen Olea europaea L. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 28: 28-35.

García-Cervigón, A.; Velázquez, E.; Wiegand, T.; Escudero, A.; Olano, T. (2017). Colonization in Mediterranean old fields: the role of dispersion and plant-plant interactions. Journal of Vegetation Science 28: 627-638.

Matesanz, S.; Teso, M. L.; García, A.; Escudero, A. (2017). Habitat fragmentation differentially affects genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity and survival in populations of a gypsum endemic. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 843.

Sánchez, A. M.; Rodríguez, M.; Albert, M. J.; Escudero, A. (2017). Effects of season and population size on pollination and reproductive output in a Mediterranean shrub. Plant Biology 19: 428-437.

Sánchez, A. M.; Valiente, P.; Albert, M. J.; Escudero, A. (2017). How might edaphic specialists in gypsum islands respond to climate change? Reciprocal sowing experiment to infer local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. Annals of Botany 120: 135-146.

Tye, M.;  Ferrer-Cervantes, M.; Sánchez, A. M.; García-Cervigón, A.; Escudero, A.; Olano, J. M.; Iriondo, J. M.; Quintana-Ascencio, P. (2017). Assessing seed and microsite limitation on population dynamics of a gypsophyte through experimental manipulation. Plant Ecology 218: 595-607.

Ventre-Lespiaucq, A. B.; Delgado, J. A.; Ospina-Calderón, N.; Otero, J. T.; Escudero, A.; Sánchez, M. A.; Balaguer, L.; Flanagan, N. S. (2017). A tropical epiphytic orchid shows a low-light interception strategy in a spatially heterogeneous light environment. Biotropica 49: 318–327.

Benavides, R.; Escudero, A.; Coll, L.; Ferrandis, P.; Ogaya, R.; Gouriveau, F.; Peñuelas, J.; Valladares, F. (2016). Recruitment patterns of four tree species along elevational gradients in Mediterranean mountains: Not only climate matters. Forest Ecology and Management 360: 287-296

Chacón-Labella, J.; de la Cruz, M.; Pescador, D. S.; Escudero, A. (2016). Individual speies affect plant traits structure in their surroundings: evidence of functional mechanisms of assembly. Oecologia 180: 975-987.

Chacón-Labella, J.; de la Cruz, M.; Escudero, A. (2016). Beyond the classical nurse species effect: diversity assembly in a Mediterranean dwarf shrubland. Journal of Vegetation Science 27: 80-88.

Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2016). Trait-based plant ecology: moving towards a unifying species coexistence theory. Oecologia 180: 919-922.

Espinosa, C. I.; de la Cruz, M.; Jara-Guerrero, A.; Gusmán, E.; Escudero., A. (2016). The effects of individual tree species on species diversity in a tropical dry forest change through ontogeny. Ecography 39: 329-337.

Mihoč, M.; Sánchez, A. M.; Giménez-Benavides, L.; Cavieres, L.; Escudero, A. (2016). Soil under nurse plants is always better than outside: a survey on soil amelioration by a complete guild of nurse plants across a long environmental gradient. Plant and Soil 408: 31–41.

Naydenov, K. D.; Naydenow, M. K.; Alexandrov, A.; Vasilevski, K.; Gyuleva, V.; Matevski, V.; Nikolic, B.; Goudiaby, V.; Bogunic, F.; Paiaridou, D.; Christou, A.; Goia, I.; Carcaillet, C.; Escudero, A.; Ture, G.; Gulcu, S.; Peruzzi, L.; Kamary, S.; Hinzov, G.; Tsarev, A. (2016). Ancient split of major genetic lineages of European Black Pine: evidence from chloroplast DNA. Tree Genetics and Genomes 12: 68.

Pauchard, A.; Escudero, A.; García, R. A.; de la Cruz, M.; Langdon, B.; Cavieres, L. A.; Esquivel, J. (2016). Pine invasions in treeless environments: dispersal overruns microsite heterogeneity. Ecology and Evolution 6: 447-459.

Peralta, A. L.; Sánchez, A. M.; Luzuriaga, A. L.; Escudero, A. (2016). Factors driving species assemblage in Mediterranean soil seed banks: from the large to the fine scale. Annals of Botany 117: 1221-1228.

Pescador, D. S.; Sierra-Almeida, A.; Torres, P. J.; Escudero, A. (2016). Summer freezing resistance: a critical filter for plant community assemblies in Mediterranean high mountains. Frontiers in Plant Science 7: 194.

Ramón, P.; de la Cruz, M.; Chacón-Labella, J.; Escudero, A. (2016). A new two-way ANOVA-like method for analyzing replicate point patterns in ecology. Ecography 39: 1109–1117.

Arenas, J. M.; Magro, S.; Casado, M. A.; Escudero, A. (2015). Woody colonization of road embankments: a large spatial scale survey in central Spain. Landscape and Urban Planning 141: 52-58.

Benavides, R.; Escudero, A.; Coll, L.; Ferrandis, P.; Gouriveau, F.; Hódar, J. A.; Ogaya, R.; Rabasa, S. G.; Granda, E.; Santamaría, B. P.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Zamora, R.; Espelta, J.; Peñuelas, J.; Valladares, F. (2015). Survival vs. growth trade-off in early recruitment challenges global warming impacts on Mediterranean mountain trees. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 17: 369–378.

Escudero, A.; Palacio, S.; Maestre, F. T.; Luzuriaga, A. L. (2015). Plant life on gypsum: a review of its multiple facets. Biological Reviews 90: 1-18.

García-Fernández, A.; Escudero, A.; Lara-Romero, C.; Iriondo, J. M. (2015). Effects of the duration of cold stratification on early life stages of the Mediterranean alpine plant Silene ciliata. Plant Biology 17: 344-350.

Gimeno, T. E.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2015). Different intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms between two Mediterranean trees under a climate change scenario. Oecologia 177: 159-169.

Jara-Guerrero, A.; de la Cruz, M.; Espinosa, C. I.; Méndez, M.; Escudero, A. (2015). Does spatial heterogeneity blur the signature of dispersal syndromes on spatial patterns of woody species? A test in a tropical dry forest. Oikos 124: 1360-1366.

Luzuriaga, A. L.; González, J. M.; Escudero A. (2015). Annual plant community assembly in edaphically heterogeneous environments. Journal of Vegetation Science 26: 866–875.

Matesanz, S.; Gómez-Fernández, A.; Alcocer, I.; Escudero, A. (2015). Fragment size does not matter when you are well connected: effects of fragmentation on fitness of coexisting gypsophiles. Plant Biology 17: 1047–1056.

Méndez, M.; Escudero, A.; Viejo, R.; Iriondo, J. M. (2015). Demography gone wild in native species: do really need the term ´native invaders´? Web Ecology 14: 85–87.

Pescador, D. S.; de Bello, F.; Valladares, F.; Escudero, A. (2015). Plant trait variation along an altitudinal gradient in Mediterranean high mountain grasslands: controlling the species turnover effect. PLoS ONE 10: e0118876.

Valladares, F.; Bastias, C.; Godoy, O.; Granda, E.; Escudero, A. (2015). Species coexistence in a changing world. Frontiers in Plant Science 6: 866.

Balaguer, L.; Escudero, A.; Martín-Duque, J. F.; Mola, I.; Aronson, J. (2014). The historical reference in restoration ecology: re-defining a cornerstone concept. Biological Conservation 176: 12-20.

Cavieres, L.; Brooker, R.; Butterfield, B.; Cook, B.; Kikvidze, Z.; Lortie, C.; Michalet, R.; Pugnaire, F.; Schöb, C.; Xiao, S.; Anthelme, F.; Björk, R.; Dickinson, K.; Cranston, B.; Gavilán, R.; Gutiérrez-Girón, A.; Kanka, R.; Maalouf, J.; Mark, A.; Noroozi, J.; Parajuli, R.; Phoenix, G.; Reid, A.; Ridenour, W.; Rixen, C.; Wipf, S.; Zhao, L.; Escudero, A.; Zaitchik, B.; Aschehoug, E.; Lingua, E.; Callaway, R. (2014). Facilitative plant interactions and climate simultaneously drive alpine plant diversity. Ecology Letters 17: 193-202.

Chacón-Labella, J.; de la Cruz, M.; Vicuña, R.; Tapia, K.; Escudero, A. (2014). Negative density dependence and environmental heterogeneity effects on tree ferns across succession in a tropical montane forest. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 16: 52-63.

Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Reyes-Agüero, J. A.; Escudero, A.; Belnap, J. (2014). Biological soil crusts across disturbance–recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics. Ecological Applications 24: 1863-1877.

Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Martínez, I.; Rabasa, S. G.; Escudero, A. (2014). The influence of environmental factors on biological soil crust: from a community perspective to a species level. Journal of Vegetation Science 25: 503-513.

Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Pescador, D. S.; Martínez, I.; Escudero, A. (2014). Climate and small scale factors determine functional diversity shifts of biological soil crusts in Iberian drylands. Biodiversity and Conservation 23: 1757-1770.

Escribano-Ávila, G.; Calviño-Cancela, M.; Pías, B.; Virgós, E.; Valladares, F.; Escudero, A. (2014). Diverse guilds provide complementary dispersal services in a woodland expansion process after land abandonment. Journal of Applied Ecology 51: 1701-1711.

Espinosa, C. I.; Luzuriaga, A. L.; de la Cruz, M.; Escudero A. (2014). Climate and grazing control nurse effects in an Ecuadorian dry shrubby community. Journal of Tropical Ecology 30 : 23-32.

García, R. A.; Escudero, A.; Pauchard, A. (2014). French broom (Teline monspessulana) invasion in south-central Chile depends on factors operating at different spatial scales. Biological Invasions 16: 113-124.

García-Fernández, A; de Haro Reyes, B.; Escudero, A. (2014). Identification and development of eight microsatellite markers for the gypsophyte Helianthemum squamatum and cross-species amplification. Conservation Genetic Resources 6: 1049-1051.

Granda, E.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2014). More than just drought: complexity of recruitment patterns in Mediterranean forests. Oecologia 176: 997-1007.

Jiménez-Alfaro, B.; Gavilán, R.; Iriondo, J. M.; Fernández-González, F.;  Escudero, A. (2014). Decline of dry grassland specialists in Mediterranean high-mountain communities influenced by recent climate warming. Journal of Vegetation Science 25: 1394-1404.

Lara-Romero, C.; García-Camacho, R.; Escudero, A.; Iriondo, J. M. (2014). Genetic variation in flowering phenology and reproductive performance in a Mediterranean high-mountain specialist. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 176: 384-395.

Palacio, S.; Escudero, A. (2014). What makes a topic ´relevant´? Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 7: 73–75.

Palacio, S.; Aitkenhead, M.; Escudero, A.; Montserrat-Martí, G.;  Maestro, M.; Robertson, J. A. H. (2014). Gypsophile chemistry unveiled: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provides new insight into plant adaptation to gypsum soils. PLoS ONE 9: e107285.

Pescador. D. S.; Chacón-Labella, J.; de la Cruz, M.; Escudero, A. (2014). Maintaining distances with the engineer: patterns of coexistence in plant communities beyond the patch-bare dichotomy. New Phytologist 204: 140-148.

Pías, B.; Escribano-Ávila, G.; Virgós, E.; Sanz-Pérez, V.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2014). The colonization of abandoned land by Spanish juniper: Linking biotic and abiotic factors at different spatial scales.Forest Ecology and Management 329: 186-194.

Sánchez, A. M.; Luzuriaga, A. L.; Peralta, A. L.; Escudero, A. (2014). Environmental control of germination in semi-arid Mediterranean systems: the case of annuals on gypsum soils. Seed Science Research 24: 247-256.

Ulrich, W.; Soliveres, S.; Maestre, F. T.; Torices, R.; Gotelli, N. J.; Quero, J. L.; Delgado-Baquerizo, M.; Ochoa, V.; Gozalo, B.; Valencia, E.; Berdugo, M.; Escolar, C.; García-Gómez, M.; García-Palacios, P.; Escudero, A.; Alfonso, G.; Arredondo, T.; Bowker, M. A.; Bran, D.; Cabrera, O.; Cea, A.; Chaieb, M.; Conceição, A. A.; Contreras, J.; Derak, M.; Eldridge, D. J.; Espinosa, C. I.; Florentino, A.; . Gaitán, J.; Ghiloufi, W.; Gómez-González, S.; Gutiérrez, J. R.; Guzmán,  E.; Hernández, R. M.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Jankju, M.; Mau, R. L.; Miriti, M.; Monerris, J.; Muchane, M.; Naseri, K.; Prina, A.; Pucheta, E.; Ramírez-Collantes, D. A.; Raveh, E.; Romão, R.; Torres, D.; Torres-Díaz, C.; Val, J.; Veiga, J. P.; Wang, D.; Yuan, X.; Zaady, E. (2014). Climate and soil attributes determine plant species turnover in global drylands. Journal of Biogeography 41: 2307–2319.

Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Escudero, A. (2013). Biological soil crusts greatly contribute to small-scale soil heterogeneity along a grazing gradient. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 64: 28-36.

Delgado-Baquerizo, M.; Maestre, F. T.; Gallardo, A.; Bowker, M. A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Quero, J. L.; Ochoa, V.; Gozalo, B.; García-Gómez, M.; Soliveres, S.; García-Palacios, P.; Berdugo, M.; Valencia, E.; Escolar, C.; Arredondo, T.; Barraza-Zepeda, C.; Bran, D.; Carreira, J. A.; Chaieb, M.; Conceição, A. A.; Derak, M.; Eldridge, D. J.; Escudero, A.; Espinosa, C. I.; Gaitán, J.; Gatica, M. G.; Gómez-González, S.; Guzman, E.; Gutiérrez, J. R.; Florentino, A.; Hepper, E.; Hernández, R. M.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Jankju, M.; Liu, J.; Mau, R. L.; Miriti, M.; Monerris, J.; Naseri, K.; Noumi, Z.; Polo, V.; Prina, A.; Pucheta, E.; Ramírez, E.; Ramírez-Collantes, D. A.; Romão, R.; Tighe, M.; Torres, D.; Torres-Díaz, C.; Ungar, E. D.; Val, J.; Wamiti, W.; Wang, D.; Zaady, E. (2013). Decoupling of soil nutrient cycles as a function of aridity in global drylands. Nature 504: 672-676.

Escribano-Ávila, G.;  Pías, B.; Sanz-Pérez, V.;  Virgós, E.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2013). Spanish juniper gain expansion opportunities by counting on a functionally diverse dispersal assemblage community.Ecology and Evolution 3: 3751-3763.

Espinosa, C. I.; Luzuriaga, A. L.; de la Cruz, M.; Montero, M.; Escudero, A. (2013). Co-occurring grazing and climate stressors have different effects on the total seed bank when compared to the persistent seed bank. Journal of Vegetation Science 24: 1098-1107.

García-Fernández, A.; Iriondo, J. M.; Bartels, D.; Escudero, A. (2013). Water stress response in a high-mountain plant across an altitudinal gradient. Response to artificial drying until drought-induced death in different elevation populations of a high-mountain plant. Plant Biology 15 suppl: 93-100.

García-Fernández, A.; Iriondo, J. M.; Escudero, A.; Fuertes Aguilar, J.; Nieto Feliner, G. (2013). Genetic patterns of habitat fragmentation and past climate-change effects in the Mediterranean high-mountain plant Armeria caespitosa (Plumbaginaceae). American Journal of Botany 100: 1641-1650.

Rubio-Salcedo, M.; Martínez, I.; Carreño, F.; Escudero, A. (2013). Poor effectiveness of the Natura 2000 network protecting Mediterranean lichen species. Journal for Nature Conservation 21: 1-9.

Soliveres, S.; García-Palacios, P.; Maestre, F. T.; Escudero, A.;  Valladares, F. (2013). Changes in rainfall amount and frequency do not affect the outcome of the interaction between the shrub Retama sphaerocarpaand its neighbouring grasses in two contrasted semiarid communities. Journal of Arid Environments 91: 104-112.

Belinchón, R.; Martínez, I.; Aragón, G.; Escudero, A. (2012). Lichen species co-occurrence patterns along an edge-interior Mediterranean forest gradient. Acta Oecologica 43: 150-157.

Escribano-Ávila, G.; Sanz-Pérez, V.; Pías, B.; Virgós, E.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2012). Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity. PLoS ONE 7(10): e46993.

García-Fernández, A.; Iriondo, J. M.; Escudero, A. (2012). Inbreeding at the edge: does inbreeding depression increase under more stressful conditions?Oikos 121: 1435-1445.

García Fernández, A.; Iriondo, J. M.; Vallès, J.; Orellana, J.; Escudero, A. (2012). Ploidy level and genome size of locally adapted populations of Silene ciliata across an altitudinal gradient. Plant Systematics and Evolution  298: 139-146.

García-Fernández, A.; Lara-Romero, C.; Segarra-Moragues, J. S.; Iriondo J. M.; Widmer, A.; Escudero, A. (2012).  Characterization of microsatellite in the mountain plant Armeria caespitosa (Plumbaginaceae) and transferability to congeners. American Journal of Botany 99: e292-294.

García-Fernández, A.; Segarra-Moragues, J. S.; Widmer, A.; Iriondo, J. M.; Escudero, A. (2012). Unravelling genetics at the top: mountain islands or isolated bells? Annals of Botany 110: 1221-1232.

García-Palacios, P.; Querejeta, J. I.; Maestre, F. T.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2012). Impact of simulated changes in rainfall regime and nutrient deposition on the relative dominance and isotopic composition of ruderal plants in anthropogenic grasslands. Plant and Soil 352: 303-319.

Luzuriaga, A. L.; Sánchez, A. M.; Maestre, F. T.; Escudero, A. (2012). Assemblage of a semi-arid annual plant community: Abiotic and biotic filters act hierarchically. PLoS ONE 7: e41270.

Maestre, F. T.; Quero, J. L.; Gotelli, N. J.; Escudero, A.; Ochoa, V.; Delgado-Baquerizo, M.; García-Gómez, M.; Bowker, M. A.; Soliveres, S.; Escolar, C.; García-Palacios, P.; Berdugo, M.; Valencia, E.; Gozalo, B.; Gallardo, A.; Aguilera, L.; Arredondo, T.; Blones, J.; Boeken, B.; Bran, D.; Conceiçaõ, A. A.; Cabrera, O.; Chaieb, M.; Derak, M.; Eldridge, D. J.; Espinosa, C. I.; Florentino, A.; Gaitán, J.; Gatica, M. G.; Ghiloufi, W.; Gómez-González, S.; Gutiérrez, J. R.; Hernández, R. M.; Huang, X.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Jankju, M.; Miriti, M.; Monerris, J.; Mau, R. L.; Morici, E.; Naseri, K.; Ospina, A.; Polo, V.; Prina, A.; Pucheta, E.; Ramírez-Collantes, D. A.; Romão, R.; Tighe, M.; Torres-Díaz, C.; Val, J.; Veiga, J. P.; Wang, D.; Zaady, E. (2012). Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands. Science335: 214-218.

Martínez, I.; Flores, T.; Otálora, M. A. G.; Belinchón, R.; Prieto, M.; Aragón, G.; Escudero, A. (2012). Multiple scale environmental modulation of lichen reproduction. Fungal Biology 116: 1192-1201.

Belinchón, R.; Martínez, I.; Aragón, G.; Escudero, A.; de la Cruz, M. (2011). Fine spatial pattern of an epiphytic lichen species is affected by habitat conditions in two forest types in the Iberian Mediterranean Region. Fungal Biology 115: 1270-1278.

Espinosa, C. I.; Cabrera, O.; Luzuriaga, A. L.; Escudero, A.(2011). What factors affect diversity and species composition of endangered Tumbesian dry forests in southern Ecuador? Biotropica 43:15-22.

García-Palacios, P.; Bowker, M. A.; Chapman, S. J.; Maestre, F. T.; Soliveres, S.; Gallardo, A.; Valladares, F.; Guerrero, C.; Escudero, A. (2011). Early-successional vegetation changes after roadside prairie restoration modify processes related with soil functioning by changing microbial functional diversity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 1245-1253.

García-Palacios, P.; Bowker, M. A.; Maestre, F. T.; Soliveres, S.; Valladares, F.; Papadopoulos, J.; Escudero, A. (2011). Ecosystem development in roadside grasslands: biotic control, plant-soil interactions and dispersal limitations. Ecological Applications 21: 2806-2821.
Giménez-Benavides, L.; Albert, M. J.; Iriondo, J. M.; Escudero, A. (2011). Demographic processes of upward rangee contraction in a long-lived Mediterranean high mountain plant.  Ecography 34: 85-93.
Giménez-Benavides, L.; García-Camacho, R.; Iriondo, J. M.; Escudero, A. (2011). Selection on flowering time in Mediterranean high-mountain plants under global warming. Evolutionary Ecology 25: 777-794.

Maestre, F. T.; Bowker, M. A.; Cantón, Y.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.; Cortina, J.; Escolar, C.; Escudero, A.; Lázaro, R.; Martínez, I. (2011). Ecology and functional roles of biological soil crusts in semi-arid ecosystems of Spain. Journal of Arid Environments 75: 1282-1291.

Maestre, F. T.; Puche, M. D.; Guerrero, C.; Escudero, A. (2011). Shrub encroachment does not reduce the activity of some soil enzymes in Mediterranean semiarid grasslands. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 1746-1749.

Matesanz, S.; Gimeno, T.; de la Cruz, M.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2011). Competition may explain the fine-scale spatial patterns and genetic structure of two co-occurring plant congeners. Journal of Ecology99: 838-848.

Milla, R.; Escudero, A.; Iriondo, J. M. (2011). Congruence between geographic range distribution and local competitive ability of two Lupinus species. American Journal of Botany 98: 1456-1464.

Olano, J. M.; Eugenio, M.; Escudero, A. (2011). Site effect is stronger than species identity in driving demographic responses of Helianthemum (Cistaceae) shrubs in gypsum environments. American Journal of Botany 98: 1016-1023.

Otálora, M. G.; Martínez, I.; Belinchón, R.; Widmer, I.; Aragón, G.; Escudero, A.; Scheidegger, C. (2011). Remnants fragments preserve genetic diversity of the old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in a fragmented Mediterranean mountain forest. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 1239-1254.

Soliveres, S.; Eldridge, D. J.; Maestre, F. T.; Bowker, M. A.; Tighe, M.; Escudero, A. (2011). Microhabitat amelioration and reduced competition among understorey plants as drivers of facilitation across environmental gradients: towards a unifying framework. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 13: 247-258.

Soliveres, S.; García-Palacios, P.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.; Maestre, F. T.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2011). Temporal dynamics of herbivory and water availability interactively modulate the outcome of a grass-shrub interaction in a semi-arid ecosystem. Oikos 120: 710-719.

Aragón, C. F.; Méndez, M.; Escudero, A. (2010). Linkages among life-history components through time: Carryover effects on the demography of a short-lived polycarpic plant. American Journal of Botany 97: 1492-1497.

Aragón, G.; Martínez, I.; Izquierdo, P.; Belinchón, R.; Escudero, A. (2010). Effects of forest management on epiphytic lichen diversity in Mediterranean forests.  Applied Vegetation Science 13: 183-194.

Eldridge, D.; Bowker, M. A.; Maestre, F. T.; Alonso, P.; Mau, R. L.; Papadopoulos, J.; Escudero, A. (2010). Interactive effects of three ecosystem engineers on infiltration in a semi-arid Mediterranean grassland.Ecosystems 13: 499-510.

García-Camacho, R.; Iriondo, J. M.; Escudero, A. (2010). Seedling dynamics at elevation limits: complex interactions beyond seed and microsite limitations. American Journal of Botany 97: 1791-1797.

García-Palacios, P.; Soliveres, S.; Maestre F. T.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P. (2010). Dominant plant species modulates responses to hydroseeding, irrigation and fertilization during the restoration of semiarid motorway slope. Ecological Engineering 36: 1290-1298.

Maestre, F. T.; Bowker, M. A.; Escolar, C.; Puche, M. D.; Soliveres, S.; Mouro, S.; García-Palacios, P.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.; Martínez, I.; Escudero, A. (2010). Do biotic interactions modulate ecosystem functioning along abiotic stress gradients? Insights from semi-arid Mediterranean plant and biological soil crust communities. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365: 2057-2070.

Maestre, F. T.; Escudero, A.  (2010). Is the patch-size distribution of vegetation a suitable indicator of desertification processes? A reply. Ecology 91: 3742-3745.

Martínez-Duro, E.; Ferrandis, P.; Escudero, A.; Luzuriaga, A. L.; Herranz, J. M. (2010). Secondary old-field succession in an ecosystem with restrictive soils: does time from abandonment matter? Applied Vegetation Science 13: 234-248.

Pías, B.; Matesanz, S.; Gimeno, T.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2010). Transgenerational effects of three global change drivers on an endemic Mediterranean plant. Oikos 119: 1435-1444.

Rey-Benayas, J. M.; Escudero, A.; Martín-Duque, J. F.; Nicolau, J. M.; Villar-Salvador, P.; García de Jalón, D.; Balaguer, L. (2010). A multi-institutional Spanish Master in Ecosytem Restoration: visión and four year experience. Ecological Restoration 28: 188-192.


Aragón, C. F.; Méndez, M.; Escudero, A. (2009). Survival costs of reproduction in a short-lived perennial plant: live hard, die young. American Journal of Botany 96: 904-911.
Belinchón, R.; Martínez, I.; Otálora, M. A. G.; Aragón, G.; Dimas, J.; Escudero, A. (2009). Fragment quality and matrix affect epiphytic performance in Mediterranean forest landscape. American Journal of Botany 96: 1974-1982.
García-Camacho, R.; Escudero, A. (2009). Reproductive success of an early-flowering Mediterranean mountain narrow endemic (Armeria caespitosa): Living on two microhabitats helps to cope with warming threats. Plant Biology 11: 515-524.
García-Camacho, R.; Méndez, M.; Escudero, A. (2009). Pollination context effects in the high-mountain dimorphic Armeria caespitosa (Plumbaginaceae): Neighborhood is something more than density. American Journal of Botany 96: 1620-1626.
Maestre, F. T.; Escudero, A. (2009). Is the patch-size distribution of vegetation a suitable indicator of desertification processes? Ecology 90: 1729-1735.
Maestre, F. T.; Martínez, I.; Escolar, C.; Escudero, A. (2009). On the relationship between abiotic stress and co-occurrence patterns: an assessment at the community level using soil lichen communities and multiple stress gradients. Oikos118: 1015-1022.
Maestre, F. T.; Bowker, M. A.; Puche, M. D.; Hinojosa, M. B.; Martínez, I.; García-Palacios, P.; Castillo, A. P.; Soliveres, S.; Luzuriaga, A. L.; Sánchez, A. M.; Carreira, J. A.; Gallardo, A.; Escudero, A. (2009). Shrub encroachement can reverse desertification in semi-arid Mediterranean grasslands. Ecology Letters 12: 930-941.
Matesanz, S.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2009). Influence of three global change drivers on a Mediterranean shrub. Ecology 90: 2609–2621.
Matesanz, S.; Valladares, F.; Escudero, A. (2009). Functional ecology of a narrow endemic plant and a widespread congener from semiarid Spain. Journal of Arid Environments 73: 784-794.
Milla, R.; Escudero, A.; Iriondo, J. M. (2009). Inherited variability in multiple traits determines fitness in populations of an annual legume from contrasting latitudinal origins. Annals of Botany 103: 1279-1289.
Milla, R.; Forero, D. M.; Escudero, A.; Iriondo, J. M. (2009). Growing with siblings: a common ground for cooperation or for fiercer competition among plants? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 276: 2531-2540.
Olano, J. M.; Laskurain, N. A.; Escudero, A.; de la Cruz, M. (2009). Why and where do adult trees die in a young secondary temperate forest? The role of neighbourhood. Annals of Forest Science 66: 105.
Quintana-Ascencio, P. F.; Caballero, I.; Olano, J. M.; Escudero, A.; Albert, M. J. (2009). Does habitat structure matter? Spatially explicit population modelling of an Iberian gypsum endemic. Population Ecology 51: 317-328.
Rabasa, S. G.; Gutiérrez, D.; Escudero, A. (2009). Temporal variation in the effects of habitat fragmentation on reproduction of the Mediterranean shrub Colutea hispanica. Plant Ecology 200: 241-254.
Rabasa, S. G.; Gutiérrez, D.; Escudero, A. (2009). Breeding system of the Iberian endemic shrub Colutea hispanica (Leguminosae). Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 66: 279-284.


Albert, M. J.; Iriondo, J. M.; Escudero, A.; Torres, E. (2008). Dissecting components of flowering pattern: size effects on female fitness. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 156: 227-236.
Aragón C. F.; Escudero A. (2008). Mating system of Helianthemum squamatum (Cistaceae), a gypsophile specialist of semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Botanica Helvetica 118: 129-137.
Aragón C. F.; Escudero A.; Valladares, F. (2008). Stress-induced dynamic adjustments of reproduction differentially affect fitness components of a semiarid plant. Journal of Ecology 96: 222-229.
Caballero, I; Olano, J. M.; Escudero, A. (2008). Seed bank spatial structure in semiarid environments: beyond the patch-area dichotomy. Plant Ecology 195: 215-223.
Caballero, I.; Olano, J. M.; Loidi, J.; Escudero, A. (2008). A model for small-scale seed bank and standing vegetation connection along time. Oikos 117: 1788-1795.
Cayuela, L.; Rey Benayas, J. M.; Maestre, F. T.; Escudero, A. (2008). Previous environments drive diversity and floristic composition in Mediterranean old fields: Insights from a long-term experiment. Acta Oecologica 34: 311-321.
de la Cruz, M.; Romao, R. L.; Escudero, A.; Maestre, F. T. (2008). Where do seedlings go? A spatio-temporal analysis of seedling mortality in a semi-arid gypsophyte. Ecography 31: 720-730.
Giménez-Benavides, L.; Escudero, A.; Iriondo, J. M. (2008). What shapes the altitudinal range of a high mountain Mediterranean plant? Recruitment probabilities from ovule to seedling stage. Ecography 31: 731-740.
Luzuriaga, A. L.; Escudero, A. (2008). What determines emergence and net recruitment in an early succession plant community? Disentangling biotic and abiotic effects. Journal of Vegetation Science 19: 445-456.
Maestre, F. T.; Escolar, C.; Martínez, I.; Escudero, A. (2008). Are soil lichen communities structured by biotic interactions? A null model analysis. Journal of Vegetation Science 19:261-266.
Matesanz, S.; Escudero, A.; Valladares, F. (2008). Additive effects of an invasive grass and water stress on the performance of gypsum plants under experimental conditions. Applied Vegetation Science 11: 287-296.
Méndez, M.; García, D.; Maestre, F. T.; Escudero, A. (2008). More ecology is needed to restore Mediterranean ecosystems: a reply to Valladares & Gianoli. Restoration Ecology 16: 210-216.
Rabasa, S. G.; Gutiérrez, D.; Escudero, A. (2008). Relative importance of host plant patch geometry and habitat quality on the patterns of occupancy, extinction and density of the monophagous butterfly Iolana iolas. Oecologia 156: 491-503.
Rueda, M.; Rebollo, S.; Gálvez, L.; Escudero, A. (2008). Habitat use by large and small herbivores in a fluctuating Mediterranean ecosystem: the implications of body size and seasonal changes. Journal of Arid Environments 72: 1698-1708.
Sánchez, A. M.; Albert, M. J.; Escudero, A. (2008). Female reproductive output in a Mediterranean shrub: effects from inflorescence to population. Plant Biology 10: 675-683.


Aragón, C. F.; Albert, M. J.; Giménez-Benavides, L.; Luzuriaga, A. L.; Escudero, A. (2007). Environmental scales on the reproduction of a gypsophyte: a hierarchical approach. Annals of Botany 99: 519-527.
Belinchón, R.; Martínez, I.; Escudero, A.; Aragón, G.; Valladares, F. (2007). Edge effects on epiphytic communities in a Mediterranean Quercus pyrenaica forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 81-90.
Escudero, A.; Martínez, I.; de la Cruz, A.; Otálora, M. A. G.; Maestre, F. T. (2007). Soil lichens have species-specific effects on the seedling emergence of three gypsophile plant species. Journal of Arid Environments 70: 18-28.
Giménez-Benavides, L.; Escudero, A.; Iriondo, J. M. (2007). Reproductive limits of a late-flowering high mountain Mediterranean plant along an elevational climate gradient. New Phytologist173: 367-382.
Giménez-Benavides, L.; Escudero, A.; Iriondo, J. M. (2007). Local adaptation enhances offspring success at the southernmost limit of a high mountain Mediterranean plant. Annals of Botany 99: 723-734.
Giménez-Benavides, L.; Dötterl, S.; Jürgens, A.; Escudero, A.; Iriondo, J. M. (2007). Generalist diurnal pollination provides greater fitness in a plant with nocturnal pollination syndrome: assessing the effects of a Silene-Hadena interaction. Oikos 116: 1461-1472.
Palacio, S.; Escudero, A.; Montserrat-Martí, G.; Maestro-Martínez, M.; Milla, R.; Albert, M. J. (2007). Plants living in gypsum: beyond the specialist model. Annals of Botany 99: 333-343.
Rabasa, S. G.; Gutiérrez, D.; Escudero, A. (2007). Metapopulation structure and habitat quality in modelling dispersal in the butterfly Iolana iolas. Oikos 116: 793-806.


Luzuriaga, A. L.; Escudero, A.; Pérez-García, F. (2006). Environmental maternal effects on seed morphology and germination in Sinapis arvensis (Cruciferae). Weed Research 46: 163-174.
Luzuriaga, A. L.; Albert, M. J.; Giménez-Benavides, L.; Escudero, A. (2006). Population structure effect on reproduction of a rare plant: beyond population size effect . Canadian Journal of Botany 84: 1371-1379.
Martínez, I.; Carreño, F.; Escudero, A.; Rubio, A. (2006). Are threatened lichen species well-protected in Spain? Effectiveness of a protected areas network. Biological Conservation 133: 500-511.
Martínez, I.; Escudero, A.; Maestre, F.; de la Cruz, A.; Guerrero, C.; Rubio, A. (2006). Small scale abundance of mosses and lichens forming soil biological crusts in two semi-arid gypsum environments. Australian Journal of Botany 54: 339-348.
Quintanilla, L. G.; Escudero, A. (2006). Spore fitness components do not differ between diploid and allotetraploid species of Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae). Annals of Botany 98: 609-618.


Albert, M. J., Escudero, A. & Iriondo, J. M. 2005. Assessing ant seed predation in threatened plants: a case study. Acta Oecologica 28: 213-220.
Caballero, I., Olano, J.M., Luzuriaga, A.L. & Escudero, A. 2005. Spatial coherence between seasonal seed banks in a semi-arid gypsum community: density changes but structure does not. Seed Science Research 15: 153-160.
Casas-García, S., Burgaz, A.R. & Escudero, A. 2005. Effects of the holm-oak canopy on the distribution of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 26: 67-77.
Giménez-Benavides, L., Escudero, A. & Pérez-García, F. 2005. Seed germination of high mountain Mediterranean species: altitudinal, interpopulation and interannual variability. Ecological Research 20: 433-444.
Escudero, A., Romao, R., de la Cruz, M. & Maestre, F.T. 2005. Spatial pattern and neighbor effects on Helianthemum squamatum seedlings in a semiarid Mediterranean gypsum community. Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 383-390.
Luzuriaga, A. L., Escudero, A., Olano, J. M. &Loidi, J. 2005. Regenerative role of seed banks following an intense soil disturbance. Acta Oecologica 27: 57-66.
Maestre, F. T., Escudero, A., Martínez, I., Guerrero, C. & Rubio, A. 2005. Does spatial pattern matter to ecosystem functioning? Insights from biological soil crusts. Functional Ecology 19: 566-573.
Olano, J.M., Caballero, I, Escudero, A. & Loidi, J. 2005. Prediction of plant cover from seed bank analysis in a semi-arid plant community on gypsum. Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 215-222.
Rabasa, S.G., Gutiérrez, D. & Escudero, A. 2005. Egg laying by a rare butterfly on a fragmented host plant: a multi-level approach. Ecography 28: 629-639.
Romao, R. & Escudero, A. 2005. Gypsum physical soil surface crusts and the existence of gypsophytes in semi-arid central Spain. Plant Ecology 181: 1-11.
Rubio, A. & Escudero, A. 2005. Effect of climate and physiography on occurrence and intensity of decarbonation in Mediterranean forest soils in Spain. Geoderma 125: 309-319.


Albert, M.J., Iriondo, J.M. & Escudero, A. 2004. Reproductive costs of herbivory in small-sized populations. Bocconea 16: 877-882.
Rey Benayas, J.M., Sánchez-Colomer, M. G. & Escudero, A. 2004. Landscape- and field-scale control of spatial variation of soil biogeochemistry in Mediterranean montane meadows. Biogeochemistry 69: 207-225.
Escudero, A., Giménez-Benavides, L., Rubio, A. & Iriondo, J.M. 2004. Patch dynamics y islands of fertility in a high mountain Mediterranean community. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 36: 488–497.
Laskurain, N., Escudero, A., Olano, J.M. & Loidi, J. 2004. Seedling dynamics of shrubs in a fully closed temperate forest: greater than expected. Ecography 27: 650-658.


Caballero, I, Olano, J.M., Escudero, A. & Loidi, J. 2003. Seed bank structure along a semi-arid gypsum gradient in central Spain. Journal of Arid Environments 55: 287-299.
Escudero, A., Iriondo, J.M. & Torres, E. 2003. Spatial analysis of genetic diversity as a tool for plant conservation. Biological Conservation 113: 351-365.
Escudero, A., Torres, E., Iriondo, J.M. & Pérez, C. 2003. Spatial scales in the genetic diversity of allogamous Antirrhinum microphyllum Rothm. (Schrophulariaceae). Bocconea 16: 165-172.
Iriondo, J.M., Albert, M.J. & Escudero, A. 2003. Structural equation models: An alternative for assesing causal relationships in threatened plant populations. Biological Conservation 113: 367-377.
Martínez, I, Burgaz, A.R., Escudero, A. & Vitikainen, O. 2003. The phytogeography of the genus Peltigera Willd.: a quantitative analysis. The Lichenologist 35(4): 1-23.
Martínez, I., Aragón, G., Sarrión,F.J., Escudero, A., Burgaz, A.R. & Coppins, B.J. 2003. Threatened lichens in the central Spain (saxicolous species excluded). Cryptogamie, Mycologie 23(4): 1-25.
Rubio, A. & Escudero, A. 2003. Clear-cut effects on forest soil under stressful conditions: discoupling of maximum productivity and soil repleshniment. Forest Ecology and Management 183: 195-204.
Torres, E., Escudero, A, Iriondo, J.M. & Pérez, C. 2003. Analysis of within population spatial genetic structure in Antirrhinum microphyllum (Schrophulariaceae). American Journal of Botany 90: 1688-1695.


Escudero, A., Pérez-García, F. & Luzuriaga, A.L. 2002. Effects of light, temperature and population variability on germination response of seven Spanish pines. Seed Science Research 12: 261-271.
Gavilán, R.G., Sánchez-Mata, D., Escudero, A. & Rubio, A. 2002. Spatial structure and interspecific interaction in Mediterranean high mountain vegetation (Sistema Central, Spain). Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 50: 217-228.
Luzuriaga, A.L., Escudero, A. & Loidi, J. 2002. Aboveground biomass distribution among plants in early old-field succession. Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 775-784.
Olano, J.M., Caballero, I., Laskurain, N.A. & Escudero, A. 2002. Seed bank spatial pattern in a temperate secondary forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 775-784.


Albert, M.J., Escudero, A. & Iriondo, J.M. 2001. Environmental range of narrow endemic Erodium paularense Fernández-González & Izco and its vulnerability to changing climatic conditions. Bocconea 13: 549-556.
Albert, M.J., Escudero, A. & Iriondo, J.M. 2001. Female reproductive succes of the narrow endemic Erodium paularense Fern. Gonz. & Izco (Geraniaceae) in contrasting microhabitats. Ecology 82: 1734-1747.


Escudero, A., Núñez, Y. & Pérez-García, F. 2000. Is fire a selection force of seed size in pine species? Acta Oecologica 21: 245-256.
Escudero, A., Albert, M.J. & Pérez-García, F. 2000. Inhibitory effects of Artemisia herba-alba on the germination of the gypsophyte Helianthemum squamatum. Plant Ecology 148: 71-80.
Escudero, A., Iriondo, J.M., Olano, J.M., Rubio, A. & Somolinos, R. 2000. Factors affecting the establishment of a gypsophyte: The case of Lepidium subulatum. American Journal of Botany 87: 861-871.
Rubio, A. & Escudero, A. 2000. Small-scale spatial soil-plant relationship in semi-arid gypsum environment. Plant and Soil 220: 139-150.


Escudero, A., Sanz, Mª & Pita, J.M. 1999. Probability of germination after heating treatment of Spanish pines. Annals of Forest Science 56: 511-520.
Escudero, A., Somolinos, R.C., Olano, J.M. & Rubio, A. 1999. Factors controlling the establishment of Helianthemum squamatum (L.) Dum., an endemic gypsophile of semi-arid Spain. Journal of Ecology 87: 290-302.
Rubio, A., Escudero, A. & Gavilán, R. 1999. Are soil characteristics and understorey composition controlled by forest management? Forest Ecology and Management 113: 191-200.


Olano, J.M., Loidi, J. & Escudero, A. 1998. Relating variability in the understorey of beech forests to ecological factors. Folia Geobotanica & Phytotaxonomica 33: 77-86.
Olano, J.M., Loidi, J., González, A. & Escudero, A. 1998. Improving the interpretation of fuzzy partitions in vegetation science with constrained ordinations. Plant Ecology 134: 113-118.
Pita, J.M., Barrero, S. & Escudero, A. 1998. Cryopreservation: an alternative method for the conservation of endangered populations of two iberian pines (Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L.). Silvae Genetica 46: 250-252.
Pita, J.M., Pérez-García, F., Escudero, A. & de la Cuadra, C. 1998. Viability of Avena sativa L. seeds after 10 years of storage in base collection. Field Crops Research 55: 183-187.
Pita, J.M., Sanz, V. & Escudero, A. 1998. Seed cryopreservation of the seven Spanish pine species. Silvae Geneticae 47: 220-223.
Rubio, A.,Gavilán, R. & Escudero, A. 1998. The relationships between floristic and edaphic patterns in managed chestnut stands (Extremadura, W-Spain). Écologie 29: 197-200.


Escudero, A., Barrero, S. & Pita, J.M. 1997. Effect of high temperatures and ash on the germination of two iberian pines (Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii, P. sylvestris). Annals of Forest Science 54: 571-579.
Escudero, A., Carnes, L. & Pérez-García, F. 1997. Germination of gypsophytes and gypsovags in semiarid central Spain. Journal of Arid Environments 36: 487-497.
Pérez-García, F. & Escudero, A. 1997. Role of seed coat in the germination of Cistus populifolius seeds. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 45: 329-331.
Rubio, A., Escudero, A. & Gandullo, J.M. 1997. Traditional management in an ecological extreme (Extremadura-Spain) for sweet chesnut (Castanea sativa). Annals of Forest Science 54: 667-680.


Escudero, A. 1996. Community patterns on exposed cliffs in a Mediterranean calcareous mountain. Vegetatio 125: 99-110.
Escudero, A., Pajarón, S. & Rubio, A. 1996. Canonical Correspondence Analysis as a basis for classification of vegetation. Abstracta Botanica 20(2): 57-67.
Escudero, A., Gavilán, R. & Rubio, A. 1996. Revisión numérica de los encinares silicícolas ibérico-sorianos. Documents Phytosociologiques 16: 103-117.
Fuertes, E., Burgaz, A.R. & Escudero, 1996. A. Pre-climax epiphyte communities and lichens in mediterranean forests from the Central Plateau (Spain). Vegetatio 123: 139-151.


Prada, C.; Pangua, E.; Pajarón, S.; Escudero, A.; Rubio, A. (1995). A comparative study of gametophyte morphology, gametangia ontogeny and sex expression in Asplenium adiantum-nigrum (Aspleniaceae, Pteridophyta) complex. Annales Botanici Fennici 32: 107-115.


Burgaz, A. R.; Fuertes, E.; Escudero, A. (1994). Ecology of cryptogamic epiphytes and their communities in decidous forests in mediterranean Spain. Vegetatio 112: 73-86.
Burgaz, A. R.; Fuertes, E.; Escudero, A. (1994). Climax epiphytic communities in Mediterranean Spain. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 115: 35-47.
Escudero, A.; Pajarón, S.; Gavilán, R. (1994). Saxicolous communities of the Sierra del Moncayo (Spain). A classificatory study. Coenoses 9: 15-24.
Escudero, A.; Pajarón, S. (1994). Numerical syntaxonomy of Asplenietalia petrarchae in the Iberian Peninsula. Journal Vegetation Science 5: 205-214.


Burgaz, A. R.; Escudero, A.; Ahti, T. (1993). Morphometric variation in primary squamules of Cladonia foliacea and Cladonia convoluta. Nova Hedwigia 57: 111-118.